Object-Capability Model


When thinking about security, it is good to start with a specific threat model. Our threat model is the following:

We assume that a thriving ecosystem of Cosmos-SDK modules that are easy to compose into a blockchain application will contain faulty or malicious modules.

The Cosmos SDK is designed to address this threat by being the foundation of an object capability system.

The structural properties of object capability systems favor modularity in code design and ensure reliable encapsulation in code implementation.

These structural properties facilitate the analysis of some security properties of an object-capability program or operating system. Some of these — in particular, information flow properties — can be analyzed at the level of object references and connectivity, independent of any knowledge or analysis of the code that determines the behavior of the objects.

As a consequence, these security properties can be established and maintained in the presence of new objects that contain unknown and possibly malicious code.

These structural properties stem from the two rules governing access to existing objects:

  1. An object A can send a message to B only if object A holds a reference to B.
  2. An object A can obtain a reference to C only if object A receives a message containing a reference to C. As a consequence of these two rules, an object can obtain a reference to another object only through a preexisting chain of references. In short, "Only connectivity begets connectivity."

For an introduction to object-capabilities, see this article.

Strictly speaking, Golang does not implement object capabilities completely, because of several issues:

  • pervasive ability to import primitive modules (e.g. "unsafe", "os")
  • pervasive ability to override module vars
  • data-race vulnerability where 2+ goroutines can create illegal interface values

The first is easy to catch by auditing imports and using a proper dependency version control system like Dep. The second and third are unfortunate but it can be audited with some cost.

Perhaps Go2 will implement the object capability model.

Ocaps in practice

The idea is to only reveal what is necessary to get the work done.

For example, the following code snippet violates the object capabilities principle:

type AppAccount struct {...}
var account := &AppAccount{
    Address: pub.Address(),
    Coins: sdk.Coins{sdk.NewInt64Coin("ATM", 100)},
var sumValue := externalModule.ComputeSumValue(account)

The method ComputeSumValue implies a pure function, yet the implied capability of accepting a pointer value is the capability to modify that value. The preferred method signature should take a copy instead.

var sumValue := externalModule.ComputeSumValue(*account)

In the Cosmos SDK, you can see the application of this principle in the gaia app.

// register message routes
  AddRoute(bank.RouterKey, bank.NewHandler(app.bankKeeper)).
  AddRoute(staking.RouterKey, staking.NewHandler(app.stakingKeeper)).
  AddRoute(distr.RouterKey, distr.NewHandler(app.distrKeeper)).
  AddRoute(slashing.RouterKey, slashing.NewHandler(app.slashingKeeper)).
  AddRoute(gov.RouterKey, gov.NewHandler(app.govKeeper))